Bible Revelation

John’s Vision of the Son of Man (Rev 1:9-20)


A. Summary of Revelation

B. Text of Revelation 1:9-20

9I, John—your brother and partner in oppression, royal reign, and expectation of Jesus—was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and testimony of Jesus. 10I was in the spirit on the Lord’s day and I heard a great noise behind me like a trumpet sound 11saying: “Write into a book what you see. Then, send it to the seven churches. Send it to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.” 12I turned to see the voice which was speaking to me, and when I turned I saw seven gold lampstands. 13In the middle of the lampstands was someone like the Son of Man clothed in a robe, wearing a gold belt around his chest. 14His head and hair were white like wool and snow. His eyes were like flames of fire. 15His feet were like fine bronze as if they had been refined in a furnace. His voice was like the sound of lots of water. 16He was holding seven stars in his right hand, a sharp double-edged sword was coming out of his mouth, and his outward appearance was shining like the sun in his glory. 17When I saw him I fell at his feet like I was dead, but he put his right hand on me saying, “Do not be afraid. I am the First and the Last. 18I am the Living One. I was dead—but look—now I am alive forever and ever. I hold the keys of death and Hades! 19Then, write what you have seen, both what is happening and what is about to happen after this. 20This is the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand and the seven gold lampstands: The seven stars are angels of the seven churches and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.” (Rev 1:9-20)[ref]Unless otherwise noted, all translations are my own[/ref]

John's Vision of the Son of Man (Rev 1:9-20)

Bamberg Apocalypse: “The Son of Man and the Seven Lampstands” (1000 AD)


A. The Identity and Location of John (v. 9)

“I, John—your brother and partner in oppression, royal reign, and expectation of Jesus—was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.” ( Rev 1:9)[ref]Unless otherwise noted, all translations are my own[/ref]

John claiming to be exiled to Patmos matches what we know about first century life. Additionally, the islands of Pontia, Gyara, and Seriphus were places that people were exiled to (Charles, Revelation of St. John, 21). Furthermore, the island of Patmos was one of three populated islands (Leros, Lipsos, and Patmos). In other words, Patmos was not a “Gilligan’s Island” type of deal. It had people, a culture, and a ruler.

LEADERSHIP MOMENT – Punishment for Godliness


How Jesus Christ was a “Slave” Philippians 2:7

This weekend we celebrated Good Friday (in remembrance of Christ’s death) and Easter (in remembrance of Christ’s resurrection). Jesus Christ came to earth as God’s Son was to serve as a “slave” or “servant” on behalf of the people of the earth. But, what does it mean that Christ was a “slave” or “servant”? How could God incarnate as human be a “slave” or “servant”?

The word that will be examined in this word study is slave used in Phil 2:7, “Instead, he gave up his divine privileges; he took the humble position of a slave and was born as a human being. When he appeared in human form” (New Living Translation). In section 1 I will review the word used in other English translations as well as provide a definition of the word slave. In section two I will provide the meaning of the Greek word, δουλος, which is often translated as slave. In section three I will provide some conclusions on slave in Phil 2:7.

How Jesus Christ was a "Slave" Philippians 2:7

Photo Credit: Norditalienischer Maler


A. Other Translations of Phil 2:7

It appears that most translations chose the word servant (ten translations) to describe the role Jesus took on earth, the word slave (seven times), and bondservant (twice). Another observation is that some of the “literal” translations used servant (ASV, ESV) while the “dynamic” translations used slave (NET, NLT, Message).


Jesus’ Relation to Women and Their Roles in the Book of Acts

Continuing my biblical study of women and leadership I am examining Jesus’ relationships with women as well as women’s roles in the Book of Acts. Some of the observations might surprise you.

Jesus' Relation to Women and Their Roles in the Book of Acts

Photo Credit: Engraving by Annibale Carracci,1597 


A.    Women Knew the Scriptures about the Messiah and They Knew Jesus Was Him


Jesus’ Example of Servant Leadership

Among the many examples of servant leadership in the Bible Jesus provided the most vivid picture of what servant leadership should look like.

Jesus’ Example of Servant Leadership

Photo Credit: abcdz2000

Within the framework of Luke’s gospel the message of servant leadership is provided. Luke’s thinking in his Gospel is very God-centered[ref]Allison Trites, “The Gospel of Luke, Acts,” in Cornerstone Biblical Commentary, ed. Philip Comfort, vol. 12, (Carole Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2006), 14.[/ref] with a strong theological emphasis on the poor, tax collectors, sinners, Samaritans, Gentiles, women, and outcasts.[ref]Stein, Robert H. “Luke,” vol. 24 in The New American Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1992), 49-50.[/ref]

Jesus’ Example of Servant Leadership

When some of the disciples had been arguing about which of them was the greatest (Luke 22:24) Jesus decided that it was time to teach one more lesson to he beloved disciples. He told them,


Who is Jesus in the Book of Luke?

From the outset of Luke’s Gospel it is clear that he wants to get his story straight.

Who is Jesus in the Book of LukePhoto Credit: Argya Diptya

Luke begins in this way,

Many people have set out to write accounts about the events that have been fulfilled among us. They used the eyewitness reports circulating among us from the early disciples. Having carefully investigated everything from the beginning, I also have decided to write a careful account for you, most honorable Theophilus, so you can be certain of the truth of everything you were taught (Luke 1:1-4, NLT).

This is Luke’s main statement about his work, why he did it and how he did it.

Leadership Servanthood

How will I serve?

How will I serve? That is a question which must be explored for every person no matter who you are, male or female, Christian or non-Christian, young or old, serving is something humans naturally do and is something that people spend years attempting to figure out.


Jesus’ statement which we will study are the first verses I memorized as a young naive non-Christian reading through the Bible to discover what it said and who Jesus was. If you are like me, you might have began reading the Bible with a desire to get to know what is in it and what the Bible says. For me, I started reading the Bible in the book of Matthew (the first book of the New Testament) and began reading through. I started in Matthew, read some stuff, had questions about what I read, but I kept reading. Then, when I finished reading Matthew I moved on to Mark. While reading Mark some of the stories and things Jesus said seemed slightly familiar, but I did not think anything of it. Then, when I moved on to Luke, I definitely noticed some of the same stories and things that Jesus said. That was when I realized, as young person who had read the Bible very little, that those books were telling the same stories of Jesus just from a different viewpoint! 🙂

I tell you that fun story because when I read the two verses which will be focused on this study of “How will I serve” I stopped reading. I stopped reading when I came upon these two verses because these two verses are so countercultural and so against the way things are in our culture that I knew I had never read those verses before. Later, I found out that Jesus’ statement which caused me to stop reading was just as countercultural in His time as it is in our time.

The two verses which will be centered on for this study on “How will I serve?” are these:

But among you it will be different. Those who are the greatest among you should take the lowest rank, and the leader should be like a servant. Who is more important, the one who sits at the table or the one who serves? The one who sits at the table, of course. But not here! For I am among you as one who serves.
Luke 22:26-27 (New Living Translation)

This statement Jesus makes was extremely countercultural in His time and is just as countercultural in our time as it was then. After reading those verses can you see why they caused me to stop reading?

This statement from Jesus has great implications for leaders and brings new light to the “a leader is a servant” discussion. And, that discussion is one we will continue with tomorrow when we can dig more into the background and history that encompassed Jesus’ time and how His statement might have been received by the people who heard it. Finally, once we have explored the implications it had to those people in Jesus’ time, we then will be able to transfer the meaning and application to our own lives.


In order to properly understand Jesus’ statement we will need to look at the entire passage of what He was saying and study the historical and cultural context which He lived in.

The entire passage in which Jesus says His statement about leadership and service is this:

14When the time came, Jesus and the apostles sat down together at the table.15Jesus said, “I have been very eager to eat this Passover meal with you before my suffering begins.16For I tell you now that I won’t eat this meal again until its meaning is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God.” 17Then he took a cup of wine and gave thanks to God for it. Then he said, “Take this and share it among yourselves.18For I will not drink wine again until the Kingdom of God has come.” 19He took some bread and gave thanks to God for it. Then he broke it in pieces and gave it to the disciples, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this to remember me.” 20After supper he took another cup of wine and said, “This cup is the new covenant between God and his people—an agreement confirmed with my blood, which is poured out as a sacrifice for you. 21“But here at this table, sitting among us as a friend, is the man who will betray me. 22For it has been determined that the Son of Man must die. But what sorrow awaits the one who betrays him.” 23The disciples began to ask each other which of them would ever do such a thing. 24Then they began to argue among themselves about who would be the greatest among them. 25Jesus told them, “In this world the kings and great men lord it over their people, yet they are called ‘friends of the people.’ 26But among you it will be different. Those who are the greatest among you should take the lowest rank, and the leader should be like a servant.27Who is more important, the one who sits at the table or the one who serves? The one who sits at the table, of course. But not here! For I am among you as one who serves. 28“You have stayed with me in my time of trial. 29And just as my Father has granted me a Kingdom, I now grant you the right 30to eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom. And you will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. – Luke 22:14-30, NLT

I have put the statement we are studying for this series in bold.

To appropriately understand this story and what Jesus’ is saying we first need to
know who Luke was and who he was writing to.

  • Luke was a companion of the apostle Paul and he also wrote the New Testament book of Acts (Acts was written after Luke and all the things which are written about in Acts happened after Jesus’ time on earth).
  • Luke was a Gentile physician/doctor who wrote one of the four accounts of Jesus. His account is called, The Gospel According to Luke.
  • Because Luke was a physician he was a meticulous researcher and writer. He was such a meticulous researcher and writer that his gospel is considered to be one of the most accurate and well pieced together historical accounts of any literature that still exists today.

To appropriately understand this story and what Jesus is saying we also need to know when Luke wrote his Gospel and who he was writing to.

  • Luke wrote his gospel to people in general: Jews and Gentiles.
  • Luke was writing his gospel during a time when the church and its members were experiencing a lot of persecution and trials from others.
  • Because Luke also wrote his Gospel and the book of Acts, we have the unique situation where we can see some of the teaching and messages Luke is hoping to convey in his Gospel lived out in the book of Acts. It is possible that when Luke sat down to write his Gospel and book of Acts, he knew the stories and teachings he wanted to present throughout both as a testimony to who Jesus was, what
    Jesus came here to do, and how we are to respond to him.

To appropriately understand this story and what Jesus is saying we need to also know what happens before this verse.

  • At this time Jesus is having the Last Supper (the final meal with His 12 disciples before His crucifixion) with His disciples and He tells them that one of them will betray Him.
  • The disciples then ask each other whom among them might do such a thing.
  • This leads them to argue among themselves about who would be the greatest among them. The gospel books of Matthew and Mark give more description saying that during this same time period James and John (two of the twelve disciples) actually ask Jesus if they could sit in the places of honor to Jesus’ left and right. They wanted special treatment.

Jesus who was a master leader and teacher always recognized a teaching moment when He saw one: this was one of those teaching moments. He saw a situation in which He needed to dedicate some time to teach and mentor these young disciples to help them understand their faith and how to live it out not for themselves, but for others.

Now that we have discovered some of the background information relating to Jesus’ statement and the context which He said it in, tomorrow we will deduce what exactly He means by what He said and then we will figure out what that means for us as people living in our current time.


This statement was controversial because when Jesus says it He stands in direct opposition to the views of power and leadership at that time. Here are a few important observations about why Jesus’ statement was so controversial.

A. Jesus is announcing a new order, a new kingdom, and a new way of doing things.

In Jesus’ time there was a social structure where the Jews (who were dominated by the Romans) thought they were better than the Romans because the Jews had what they believed was the “correct God.” On the other hand, the Romans (who dominated the Jews) thought they were better than the Jews because they were superior and ruled over the Jews. Thus, the social class structure was very obscure with each group of people thinking they were better than each other. Fortunately, Jesus comes in and throws all of that away. Jesus is saying “I am among you (Jews, Gentiles, Samaritans, etc.) as the one who serves.” This was a big shift and a big statement to people at that time.

Let’s fast forward 35-50 years later when Luke writes this gospel and the book of Acts. There is much evidence that Luke did not write his account of Jesus’ life for about 35-50 years after Jesus died, hence there is yet another historical and cultural context we may examine this passage in.

B. Put yourself in the shoes of someone reading this statement 35-50 years after Jesus first said those words.

The people reading or hearing this statement now hear it within the context of Luke’s entire gospel and the book of Acts in the New Testament. Put yourself in these shoes of someone reading the verse:

  • Someone who reads the book of Acts and reads about the many trials and pains
    early apostles went through
  • Someone who had endured persecution, troubles, and conflicts with others because of their faith and
    belief in Jesus.
  • Someone who knew that Jesus had come to earth and died for their sins.
  • Someone who was struggling with a tyrannical government authority that opposed Christianity.

The message being communicated to these early believers is that a true leader is a servant just as Jesus was a servant. Jesus was the ultimate
servant giving his life for others.

So, if Jesus’ original message to His 12 disciples was to serve others, and the message being communicated to His early followers was to serve despite their persecution, what is the message for us?

Now that we know Jesus came here to serve others, we are also called to do the same. We are called to do the same because Jesus did not come here to do a few things to leave.

C. Jesus came here to be a model of service for us to follow.

  • Jesus served His disciples then He gave His life for us.
  • That model of serve was shown to us by His 12 disciples who traveled for ministry, were physically beaten, snake bitten, ship wrecked, placed in prison, and eventually killed.
  • This all happened because the disciples lived out Jesus’ instructions that a leader “should take the lowest rank and be like a servant.”

As we close out this series I hope you will consider how you will serve others.

Christ’s example teaches us
That we should follow Him each day,
Meeting one another’s needs,
Though humble service be the way.
Cindy Hess Casper, Our Daily Bread (June 2, 2009)

Question: With all the pain, shame, and blame that Jesus endured for you–because He was among us as the one who serves–how are you going to respond in serving others?


Jesus Is a Leader

One of the most effective evangelists in history, Billy Graham, believes, “The central message of the Bible is Jesus Christ.”

But who is Jesus?

Over the next couple days I am going to focus on the question of “Who is Jesus” based on the Gospel of Matthew and my own personal experience with Jesus Christ. After studying the book of Matthew and reflecting on who Jesus is to me, I believe that Jesus is a leader who teaches, equips, and serves through sacrifice.

First, let us see how Jesus taught throughout the Gospel of Matthew.

When reading the Gospel of Matthew, I can’t help but notice that Jesus is a teacher. The Gospel of Matthew quickly moves through Jesus’ family heritage, how and where He was born, His baptism from John the Baptist, and the three temptations He faced. As soon as Jesus finishes his 40 days in the desert facing the three temptations, Jesus hears that John the Baptist has been arrested, and Jesus travels to the Sea of Galilee where Matthew tells us, “From then on Jesus began to preach” (Matt 4:17). Up until this point in time, Jesus has not preached or performed any miracles.


Jesus was a Leader

So, who is Jesus?

Is he a leader? A teacher? A savior? A chosen one? A servant?

I believe, based on my reading of the gospels and my personal experience of Jesus working in my life, that Jesus is a leader. He is a leader of many things, but most of all he is a leader of the heavenly kingdom here on earth and unlike the expectations of the people at that time when he lived on the earth, he is not a positional leader. While here on earth he did not have a formal position as a leader or priest or king, but he held tremendous influence among the people at that time. Jesus had that influence as a leader because he cared for people, he taught them, and he sacrificed himself for them.

Jesus is a leader because he cares for others.

One of the things that encourages people to follow a leader is when he shows a sincere and genuine care for others. When people know you care about them, they will trust you and follow you. An example of this comes to mind when we read John 4 about Jesus’ interaction with the Samaritan woman at the well. Jesus reached out to someone who never would have expected to even be spoken to, and he went beyond that by speaking into her life about her sin and teaching her about the kingdom of God and what it means to worship. He showed her kindness and love at a time when it was uncommon to even speak to a woman, and even more uncommon to speak to a Samaritan woman.


A Pastoral Leader is a Servant

The most important characteristic of a pastoral leader is to be a servant and meet the needs of others.

This might be a word of encouragement to someone who needs it, it might be a great sermon prepared to cast vision to the congregation, or it might be teaching a practical lesson people can apply in their own lives  

The role of a leader is to make the lives of people better, happier, more fulfilling, and easier.  That’s a pretty tall order for a pastoral leader, but he does that by serving the needs of the people he pastors.