Below are my personal doctrinal statements on various topics from the Bible. This is an incomplete list and is being updated regularly.
My belief in the one God rests in his self-revelation based on his names and attributes. The names of God reveal his person, character, and function and therefore are sacred. Two primary names are used for God in the Old Testament. The first is יהוה / YHWH which is often translated as “LORD” and is God’s personal name in covenant with creation and Israel. A second name commonly used in the Old Testament is אֱלֹהִים / Elohim which is often translated as “God” as a more generic form describing God as Creator and Sovereign God in parallel with יהוה. God also reveals himself through his communicable attributes (which we share) and incommunicable attributes (we do not share). Among the communicable attributes of God are being true, wise, holy, just, good, faithful, loving, and merciful. Among the incommunicable attributes of God are being tripersonal, self-existent, self-sufficient, free, simple, united, perfect, and infinite.
The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as God
My belief in God also includes a belief in the distinct, separate, and equal persons of the Godhead: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The first person of the Godhead, the Father, is Father to Israel, Christ, and to all believers. He is the divine source and creator, sovereign ruler, holy and chief judge, loving and compassionate reconciler, and to whom all things will return. The second person of the Godhead, the Son, displays both deity and humanity of Christ (the “hypostatic union”) in his incarnation. Explicit testimonies of Christ’s deity come from his own self revelations, the Gospel writers, as well as numerous references within the NT epistles. Indirect testimonies for Christ’s deity comes from Christ’s divine attributes, divine activities, divine titles, and from him being worshipped while on earth. As God incarnate, Christ was the perfect human example, made complete substitution for our sins, and demonstrated a subordination to God the Father while also showing that he was equal with God the Father. The third person on the Godhead, the Holy Spirit, includes that he is God yet also a distinct person. Evidence that the Holy Spirit is God can be seen from the various times the Holy Spirit was present in the Old Testament. Examples of this are that he was active in creation, anointing people with special abilities, and NT writers directly referring to the Holy Spirit as the Lord. Further evidence of the Holy Spirit being God is seen in his divine attributes of omniscience, omnipotence, omnipresence; his divine activities of creation of the world, inspiration of Scripture, generation of Jesus; and most importantly the giving of life; and his divine titles of “another counselor,” “Spirit of YHWH,” “Spirit of the Father,” “Spirit of the Son/Christ.” In addition to the Holy Spirit being God, he is also a distinct person. Scripture reveals that he is a distinct person by expressing the Holy Spirit’s intelligence, showing that he manifests emotions, has will, stands parallel to Jesus as the other counselor, and that he does what God does.
Because of God being one yet also being Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, I believe that the one God exists as three distinct persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—each is equal in nature, equal in glory, but distinct in relationship. Because of this belief in a triune God, (1) I worship and praise “one” God while at the same time celebrate his distinctiveness as “three.” (2) I see that different members of the Godhead have different roles and ministries of which the Holy Spirit is the member most active and integral in my daily life. (3) I seek harmonious community with others within the church as “one body” because our God has a harmonious relationship within himself.
I believe angels are and have been created by God[i] and serve God’s will. Even though I do not know exactly how many angels there are,[ii] Scripture indicates[iii] that there is a hierarchy between God, his angels, and humans[iv] (God first at the top, angels just below God, and humans at the bottom). There also appears to be a hierarchy even among the angels[v] where Michael is called the archangel.[vi]
Created by God before the creation of the world, angels are created finite and perfect,[vii] innumerable,[viii] have immortal spirits,[ix] usually appear male,[x] and do not appear to have wings, harps, or halos.[xi] However, even though angels are created above humans in the hierarchy[xii] before God, angels[xiii] are not to be worshipped[xiv] or prayed to.[xv] In addition to watching us,[xvi] angels are directed[xvii] by God, and they worship God.[xviii] This direction by God is sometimes to guide[xix] and protect[xx] humans, sometimes it is for divine judgment,[xxi] and occasionally it is for an answered prayer.[xxii] Sometimes while helping humans[xxiii] angels are able to be seen by humans,[xxiv] but this is rare.
In addition to directing, guiding, and protecting humans angels also serve God as emissaries of God’s destruction.[xxv] A discussion of angels must also include Satan.[xxvi] Satan was once the most beautiful and powerful of all angels.[xxvii] Now, he is the ruler of this world,[xxviii] head of his own kingdom, father of rebellious men and women, the father of all lies, one who opposes the Gospel, the enemy fighting the good seed, and finally the one causing people to do the terrible things he promotes.[xxix] Satan has other fallen angels[xxx] and demons[xxxi] which are under his control and direction. These fallen angels and demons regularly attempt to deceive and destroy[xxxii] believers here on earth which is what is defined as spiritual warfare.[xxxiii]
Salvation is God’s way of delivering people from sin, death, and divine wrath. It also describes the spiritual blessings both temporal and eternal.[i] Essentially, salvation is the application of the work of Christ to the lives of humans.[ii]
The Word of God is the method and instrument used by God to describe himself and show how humans can know him. 2 Timothy 3:15 says the message of salvation is contained in the Scriptures revealing God but also revealing his plan for salvation.[iii] In fact, the Bible’s central message is about the spiritual recovery and salvation of lost men and women.[iv] The Bible shows God’s love and salvific plan in both the Old Testament and New Testament.[v]
Sadly, sin is the reason that salvation is needed (Gen. 3:16-19).[vi] Sin is falling short of the holiness of God.[vii] Because of the literal interpretation of Genesis 1-3, salvation through Jesus Christ has significance and causes all of biblical revelation (Eph. 4:3-4) to make sense. Starting in the Old Testament sin was one of three categories: 1) knowing that a kind of sin was committed (Psalm 51:1-2); 2) something contrary to the norm; 3) disobedience with both deliberate and passive elements (Heb. 9:7).[viii] Moving to the New Testament sin: 1) always has a moral standard of which it is committed against; 2) all sin is a rebellion against God; 3) evil may present itself in more than one way; 4) responsibility of man is clear.[ix]
Now that a definition of sin has been provided in both the Old Testament and New Testament (which shows the need for salvation), a look at salvation in the Old Testament and New Testament is needed. Salvation in the Old Testament was seen in a “promissory and provisional way” (Jer. 31:31-33).[x] For Israel, the Exodus was the primary event by which they witnessed salvation provided by the Lord.[xi] The hope of a future Messiah who would bring salvation was uttered in Isaiah 49:6 and Zechariah 9:9.[xii] Furthermore, the basis of this salvation in the Old Testament was always the death of Christ, required by faith in God (Micah 6:7; Job 19:25-56).[xiii] Salvation in the New Testament[xiv] is the salvation which is enjoyed during the current age. The foundation of salvation is in Jesus.[xv] He is the open invitation for others to come and know him.
Christ’s work on the cross for the salvation[xvi] of all is best understood through the different descriptions of what occurred which are broadly referred to as the “atonement.”[xvii] Six important elements of the atonement are: 1) Justification: Christ’s righteousness imputed[xviii] to believers as a legal standing before God[xix] by acknowledging that Christ is righteous;[xx] 2) Redemption: The payment of a ransom price[xxi] that frees sinners from the consequences of sin,[xxii] which therefore is the means of salvation (Psalm 49:14-15);[xxiii] 3) Satisfaction:[xxiv] Because of God’s honor[xxv] God has holy demands against sin which Christ’s payment satisfied;[xxvi] 4) Substitutionary: Christ suffered and died in place of sinners to satisfy God’s justice[xxvii] so that men might not be required to bear this burden of condemnation;[xxviii] 5) Recapitulation: The primary theory in the early church that Jesus’ death was the victory over sin, death, and Satan. Therefore, Jesus was the Last Adam who reversed the fall;[xxix] 6) Reconciliation: The change in relationship[xxx] as a result of Christ’s death that makes people right (friends) with God (Rev. 6:9-10).[xxxi]
Finally, Christians can have assurance of their eternal security and sealing by the Spirit (John 3:36; 11:25).[xxxii] This assurance is because of the past (the once and for all pardoning at the moment of faith and the inhabiting of the Holy Spirit), [xxxiii] present (ongoing experience of being liberated from the power of sin), [xxxiv] and future (the complete liberation from sin when joined with Christ).[xxxv] In this, salvation is a one-time act that continues until the believer is called home.[xxxvi]
I believe sin is the conscious and unconscious rebellion against God, his character,[i] and his will for believers.[ii] Sin has infected the entire human race[iii] because it is imputed directly from Adam.[iv] Sin starts from the moment we are born[v] thoroughly pervading our lives toward pride (self-idolatry), selfishness, and a disobedience to God,[vi] which ultimately causes death.[vii] That sin encapsulates every part of the human being: mind, body, soul/spirit.[viii] Everyone is a complete sinner;[ix] no one is born partially good or only a little sinful.[x] Sin entered into the world due to the literal[xi] disobedience[xii] to God and his commands to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.[xiii] The tempter, Satan, provided the “test” for Adam and Eve to see if they would obey God.[xiv] Sadly, Adam and Eve did not obey God and as a result the consequences of their sin affected them immediately and thus effects everyone and everything on earth now. As a result of sin there are now five divisions currently in effect: 1) God and man: Adam and Eve hid from God because there no longer was perfect unity between God and man (man is still made in the image of God, but not like God);[xv] 2) man and himself: these are the personal feelings of guilt, shame, and loneliness (among many others) that man feels and deals with; 3) man and man: this is shown in Adam blaming Eve; 4) man and nature: Eve point the finger at the serpent as the cause for her sin; 5) nature and nature:[xvi] natural disasters, death of animals, etc.[xvii] Satan, is the advocate of sin and evil. As our enemy, he wants to us to bring us down.[xviii] He blinds some people in their sin,[xix] but believers can (and should) recognize sin.[xx] Additionally, with a belief in Jesus we can be delivered from sin.[xxi]
I believe God created man[i] and the world[ii] divine fiat[iii] (by mere command) ex nihilo (out of nothing). The confession that God is “maker of heavens and earth” is the most basic Christian confession about the universe.[iv] During the literal seven days of creation (day being seen as a twenty-four hour period of time[v]) in Gen 1-2 God created man on the sixth day. Man was created in the imago Dei[vi] from the dust of the ground[vii] as a mortal being designed to rule the world[viii] in a physical bodily form.[ix] In other words, man’s body did not grow nor was it produced by the process of development; it was created instantaneously by God.[x] Being created in the imago Dei with the intent to rule the world man was also given mind (a capacity to think, reconcile, make decisions),[xi] body, and soul/spirit (an immaterial element of the whole person consisting of feelings/emotions as the focus of redemption whether alive or after death),[xii] as a means of ruling, thinking, making decisions, and being a steward of what God provided.[xiii] As coregent with man, God also created woman equal to man (but also different than man[xiv]) in order to rule the earth and produce offspring.[xv] In Gen 2 man and woman were in perfect harmony with God, themselves (man in harmony with himself and woman in harmony with herself), with each other (relationship between woman and man), and with nature.
References and Footnotes for my Doctrinal Statements
 Exod 3:13-15; Judg 13:17-18; Rev 22; Pss. 8:1; 75:1; 76:1. Menotonomy as a part of the whole person. Sometimes a name indicates the will of the person. Sometimes a name invokes authority or presence.
 “I AM WHO I AM” (Exod 3:13-17) and “holy one,” “wonderful” (Judg 13:17-18).
 Exod 20:7; Matt 6:9. As a result, these holy names representing the holy God are not to be blasphemed, taken in jest, or lightly. Strong cautions should be used when taking an “oath” before God. Thus, following these parameters around the holy God and his holy names should safeguard believers.
 In addition to these names, other important names of God are: “My Husband(s) (Isa 54:5; Hos 2:16); “Judge of all the Earth” (Gen 18:25); “Shepherd,” “my Shepherd” (Gen 48:15; 49:24: Ps 23:1); “Rock,” “Rock of Israel” (Gen 49:24; Deut 32:4, 15, 18, 31; 1 Sam 2:2); “Holy One,” “Most Holy” (Isa 1:4; 43:3; Acts 2:27; Rev 16:5); “King” (Deut 33:2-5; Ps 5:2; 44:4; 1 Tim 1:17; 6:15; Rev 19:16); “Ancient of Days” (Da 7:9, 13, 22); “Father” (Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6); “Master,” “Lord,” “Sovereign Lord” (Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24); “All-Powerful,” “Almighty” (Rev 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 16:7). This list is adapted from J. Scott Horrell, “The Names of God,” unpublished class notes for ST102, 5).
 It is possible that the root of יהוה is הוה implying God as the “ever active, self-existence one” (J. Scott Horrell, “The Names of God,” 3). Some biblical references that might support God’s name coming from הוה are Gen 27:29; Neh 6:6; Ecc 2:22; 11:3; Isa 16:4.
 God’s name in covenant with creation and Israel is seen in Gen 2:24 and Exod 3:13-15.
 The third name used to describe God in the Old Testament is אֲדֹנָי / ‘Adonai (some of the most popular verses using this word for God are Gen 15:2; 18:3; Pss 35:25; 110:1) which has a literal sense of “my lords” or “my masters.” This word comes from the root, אֲדֹנ often meaning, “Lord, lord, master, sir.” This word seems to show that God is master over us.
 This word is in the “plural form” as seen in the translation as “powerful ones” or “most high ones.” Even though this noun is a “plural form” it almost always appears in conjunction with singular verbs and singular modifiers. This “plural subject” with “singular modifiers” is what Dr. Horrell has taught as the “veiled glory” of the Trinity as it was a way of God revealing himself as one to the Israelites in the Old Testament yet it provided an avenue for further revelation to show God as three with the help of the New Testament.
 God is the only true God and therefore defines what is true. See Isa 46:9; Jer 10:10-11; 1 Cor 8:4-6; John 17:13; 1 John 5:20.
 In the Old Testament this is seen in Job 9:4 and Pss 104:24. In the New Testament this is seen in Rom 11:33-36; 16:27; 1 Cor 1:24, 30; 4:10; Eph 3:10; Col 1:9; Rev 5:12; 7:12.
 God is holy, he makes things holy, and he calls believers to be holy. See Isa 6:3; Hab 1:13; and Rev 4:8.
 Sin cannot go unsolved before the ethically perfect character of God. See Ex 32:9-10; Rom 1:18; 6:16; 15:3-4; 19:15.
 He is the final standard of everything excellence, awesome, righteous, worthy, and admirable. See Pss 25:8; 34:8; Mark 10:18.
 God is faithful and consistent in who he is and what he does. See Deut 7:9; 32:4; Isa 49:7; Lam 3:22-23; Pss 25:10; 33:4; 1 Cor 10:13; 2 Cor 1:18; 1 Thess 5:24; 2 Thess 3:3; 1 Pet 4:19; Rev 3:14; 2 Tim 2:13.
 This “love” of God carries many connotations. Mostly, it is important to remember that God is love and does love. See Pss 136 and 1 John 4:16.
 This is often seen in God expressing his grace to those who do not deserve it. See Ex 34:6; Pss 103:8; Matt 9:27; Rom 3:23-24; 2 Cor 1:3; 5:21; Heb 4:16.
 Sometimes when reading the Bible the word “God” can refer to God’s deity in a generic sense. Examples of this are John 1:1-2; 1 Cor 8:4. However, sometimes “God” can refer to a specific member of the Trinity: (1) Father in 1 Cor 8:6; Eph 4:5-6, (2) Son in John 1:1-2; 20:28; Heb 1:8-9, (3) Spirit in Acts 5:3-4.
 God exists without an props or helps. He is self-sustaining and does not depend on anything else. See Exod 3:14; Isa 40:12-28; John 5:26; 1 Tim 6:13, 15-16.
 This is the fullness of the Godhead that does not need anything. Nothing is lacking in God. He is sufficient. See Job 41:11; Pss 50:10-12; 90:2; Acts 17:24-25; Rev 4:11.
 God chooses to be himself and in so doing he sustains all things. See Pss 115:3; Isa 40:12-28; Dan 4:35.
 That there is nothing contrary within the Godhead. He is in harmony with himself. There are not tensions, contradictions, nor is there dichotomy.
 God is one. There is a oneness that is enjoyed by the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. See Deut 6:4; Isa 43:10-11; 1 Cor 8:4; Tit 2:5; James 2:19.
 God is the crown of everything. He is perfect. Nothing is better. He is the standard of everything that is pure, moral, true, correct, and good. See Hab 1:13; 1 Tim 4:4; 1 John 1:5.
 God is infinite in the fact that he possess the following characteristics. Eternal: God is eternal in the sense that he is outside of time and is everlasting. See Gen 21:33; Exod 3:14; Job 36:26; Pss 29:10; 48; 90:2; Isa 9:6; 40:28; Mic 5:2; John 1:3; 8:58; 1 Cor 8:6; Col 1:16; Heb 1:2; Rev 1:8; 22:13. Omniscient: God knows everything. See Job 11:7-10; 28:20-28; 34:21-22; Pss 139:1-6, 16-18; 147:5; Exod 6:10; Isa 46:9-10. Omnipotent: God in his omnipotence is all-powerful and sovereign. Because of this God can do whatever he chooses and does in line with his character and plan. See Pss 135:5-6; Isa 9:6; 43:13; 44:24; 45:7; Jer 32:17; Matt 19:26; 2 Cor 6:18; Heb 2:10; Rev 1:8; 4:11; 16:14; 19:15-16; 22:13. Omnipresent: God is all-present. He is everywhere, always sustaining creation, and as a result nothing can exist apart from him. See 1 Kings 8:27; Isa 40:12-26; 57:15; 66:1-2; Pss 139:7-12; Jer 23:23-24; Acts 17:24. Ten ways that God can be “present” (1) Transcendently, (2) Exaltedly, (3) Perceivably, (4) Visibly, (5) Personally, (6) Corporately, (7) Intimately, (8) Effectively, (9) Immanently, (10) Gloriously (“God in Three Persons,” J. Scott Horrell in Exploring Christian Theology, vol. 1., edited by Nathan Holsteen and Michael Svigel, 150-151).
 Some passages that distinguish the Godhead are those that distinguish the Lord from the Lord (Gen 19:24; Hosea 1:17); the Redeemer from the Lord (Isa 59:20); the Spirit from the Lord (Isa 48:16; 59:21; 63:9-10) (Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide to Understanding the Biblical Truth [Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 1999], 59).
 “Since God is, before all things, a Father, and not primarily Creator or Ruler, all his ways are beautifully fatherly. It is not that this God ‘does’ being Father as a day job, only to kick back in the evenings as plain old ‘God.’ It is not that he has a nice blog of fatherly icing on top. He is Father. All the way down. Thus all that he does he does as Faher. That is who he is. He creates as Father and he rules as a Father; and that means the way he rules over creation is most unlike the way any other God would rule over creation” (Michael Reeves, Delighting in the Trinity: An Introduction to the Christian Faith [Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2012], 23).
 Exod 4:22; Isa 1:2; Jer 31:9; Hosea 11:1.
 Matt 3:16-17; 17:5.
 Rom 8:14-16; Gal 4:4-7; Eph 3:14-15. Some of the other brief mentions of God as Father are that he is “Father of Glory” (Eph 1:17), “Father of angels” (Job 1:6), “of the fatherless” (Pss 68:5), “of all” (Eph 4:6), “we are his offspring” (Acts 17:28).
 The Father is divine source and creator as the fountainhead of all existence and the originator of all life. See Gen 1:1-3; Exod 20:11; Pss 89:1; 148, 2, 5; Pro 3:1; Isa 45:8; 12; 40:26-28; 48:1.
 The Father is sovereign ruler over the earth and all of its nations. As sovereign ruler the father is the heavenly monarch and transcendent ruler, therefore there is nothing above or behind him. See 1 Chor 29:11-12; Isa 45:9; 64:8; Jer 18:6; Dan 34:35; 7:10; Matt 6:10; 11:25; Luke 10:21; Eph 1:3-6; 1 Tim 6:15-16; Rev 4:2-5:3; 21:3.
 The Father is holy chief and judge which places him as the ethical and moral absolute of all existence. See Gen 18:25; Exod 12:12; Lev 18:4; Isa 6:3; John 3:17-18, 36; 5:22; Luke 23:34; Acts 10:42; 2 Tim 4:1; Heb 12:23; James 1:17; 2 Peter 3:9-10; Rev 4:8; 20:11.
 The Father is the loving and compassionate reconciler who loves the world so much that he gave his son in order to reconcile the world back to himself. It was in love that God created the world and it was in love that he provided a savior for it. See John 3:16; Rom 3:24; 4:24; 8:28; 5:1-2; Gal 4:6-7; Eph 1:13-14; 1 Cor 1:9; 2 Cor 5:17-19; 13:11.
 The Father is whom all things will return to because all these originated with the Father. This even includes the Son giving back to the Father all that was given to the Son. See 1 Cor 15:24-28; Col 1:20; 2 Pet 3:13; Rev 1:8; 21:6; 22:13, 22.
 Matt 26:63-64; 28:18-20; John 8:58; 10:30; 17:22.
 John 1:1-3, 18; 20:28-29.
 Major Texts are Col 1:13-19; 2:9; Phil 2:5-11; Heb 1:1-14. Minor Texts are Acts 17:55-56; the use of “Lord of all” in Acts 10:36; Acts 20:28; Rom 9:5; relation to the Shema (Deut 6:4-8) in 1 Cor 8:4-6; Gal 2:20; Tit 2:13; 2 Pet 1:1, 11; 2:20; 3:18; 1 John 5:20.
 Divine Attributes of Christ. Preexistence: Jesus is preexistent because Scripture says that he was preexistent and present prior to the beginning of all creation. See John 1:1-3; 8:58; 17:5; Col 1:15-19; Heb 1:2-3. Less explicit are Micah 5:2; Isa 9:6; John 3:31; 6:38; 16:28; 17:24; Heb 2:7; Rev 22:13. Omnipresence: Jesus is omnipresent because he can be present wherever believers can go which is what he promised before and after the resurrection. See Matt 28:20; Col 1:16-17; Matt 18:20. Omnipotence: Matt 18:18; Col 1:16; Heb 1:3.
 Divine Activities of Christ. Performing Miracles: Jesus performed miracles such as healing the blind, raising the read, and curing the sick. See Isa 35:5; Matt 9:25; Luke 7:11-15; John 5:26; 9:1-11; 10:18; 11:17. Pardoning Sin and Judging all Things: Matt 9:2; Luke 7:48; John 3:18; 5:22-23; 8:11. Creation and Sustaining the Universe: “For no part of creation is left void of him; while abiding with his own Father, he has filled all things in every place” (Saint Athanasius, On the Incarnation [NY, St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2011], 56-57. Also see Col 1:16-17; Heb 1:3. Lordship over the Spirit: Even though the Spirit “conceived” Jesus (Matt 1:20; Luke 1:35) and “baptized” him, Christ still appears to be “over” the Holy Spirit. See Matt 3:11-16; John 1:3; 15:26; 16:4, 7; 20:22.
 Divine Titles of Christ. Lord: The New Testament refers to Jesus as “Lord” with the word, κυριος. See Matt 3:3 (quoting Isa 40:3); Matt 12:36; Luke 20:42; Acts 2:34; 1 Cor 1:31; Rom 10:13; Heb 1:10; 1 Peter 2:3; 3:15. Son of Man, Son of God: The “Son of Man” is probably Jesus’ favorite self-description. This “Son of Man” reference of Jesus probably stems from Dan 7:13-14. In the New Testament see numerous mentions of this. Just in Matthew (among the additional references in other books are Matt 8:20; 9:6; 10:23; 11:9; 12:8, 32, 40; 13:7, 41; 16:13, 27-28; 17:9, 12, 22; 19:28; 20:18, 28; 24:27, 30, 37, 39, 44; 25:31; 26:2, 24, 45, 64; 27:54. Alpha and Omega: Jesus is the first and the last. Rev 22:13.
 Even though Jews were not supposed to worship any other God, they worshipped Jesus (Exod 20:2-3); the Magi worshipped Jesus (Matt 2:8-11); Disciples worship Jesus after he walked on water (Matt 14:33); the blind man healed worshipped Jesus (John 9:35-38); Jesus was worshipped during the resurrection (Matt 28: 9, 17). Also see Col 1:15; Heb 1:3.
 Matt 24:36; 26:36-38.
 This summary of Christ’s humanity is from J. Scott Horrell, “One Nature, 2 Persons,” PowerPoint Presentation in ST102, Spring Semster, 2015.
 This is creation of the world, universe, and the giving of life and beauty to them. See Gen 1:2; 2:7; Job 33:4; 26:13; Pss 104:30; Ezek 37:9.
 The Holy Spirit anointing people with power in visions, ecstasy, and prophetic speech (Judg 13:25; Num 11:25). A second category of abilities the Holy Spirit provides are wisdom, righteousness, special skills, and leadership (Dan 5:14; Pss 51:11; Isa 32:15).
 Matt 28:19; Acts 5:3-9; 2 Cor 3:17-18; Matt 12:31-32.
 In addition to the three divine attributes listed above the Holy Spirit also displays holiness (Eph 4:30); truth (John 14:17); life (Rom 8:2); grace (Heb 10:29); glory (1 Pet 4:14).
 Isa 40:13-14; 1 Cor 2:10-13.
 Isa 40:15-17.
 Pss 139:7-19.
 The Holy Spirit also restrains sin in the world (Gen 6:2); convicts of sin, righteousness, and judgement (John 16:8-11); regenerates the Christian (John 3:5-7); baptizes (1 Cor 12:13); indwells (Rom 8:13-14); makes us sons (1 John 3:9); makes us temples of God (1 Cor 3:16).
 Gen 1:2; Pss 33:6; Isa 40:12.
 2 Tim 3:16; 1 Pet 1:11-12.
 Matt 1:20; Luke 1:35.
 The Spirit is “‘the Lord, the giver of life.’ In the beginning, it was the Spirit who, like a mother dove, first vitalized creation and breated life into it; likewise it is the Spirit who gives new life—first to Jesus in the tomb (Rom 8:11), and then to us” (Reeves, Delighting in the Trinity, 85).
 1 John 14:16; 1 John 2:1.
 Judg 3:10.
 Matt 10:20.
 Rom 8:9; 1 Pet 1:11; Phph 1:19.
 John 14:26; 15:26; Rom 8:26-27; 1 Cor 2:10-13. Man of these verses in support of the Holy Spirit’s deity and personhood have been adapted from J. Scott Horrell’s PowerPoints and class notes for ST102.
 The Holy Spirit manifests emotions first based on the fact that he is called “counselor,” “comforter,” and “advocate” in John 14:16-17, 26; 15:26; 16:7; 1 John 2:1. Additionally, the Holy Spirit is encouraging (Acts 9:31); helping (Rom 8:26); grieving (Eph 4:30; Isa 63:10); insulted (10:29).
 Acts 5:9; 13:2; 15:28; 1 Cor 12:11.
 John 14:16-17; Rom 8:26; 1 John 2:1.
 Such as comforts (Acts 9:31) and guides/glorifies (John 16:13-14).
 This definition of the Trinity is based on J. Scott Horrell’s definition, “the one true God eternally exists as three persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—equal in nature, equal in glory, and distinct in relations” (J. Scott Horrell, class notes and PowerPoints for ST102).
 Michael Reeves makes an important observation that “even the most basic call to believe in the Son of God is an invitation to a Trinitarian faith. Jesus is described as the Son of God. God is his father. When you start with the Jesus of the Bible, it is the triune God that you get” (Reeves, Delighting in the Trinity, 37).
[i] John 1:1-3; Col. 1:16. However, the Bible never says that angels were created in the imago Dei. Angels are included in descriptions of all that God created. “Angel” in Tyndale Bible Dictionary, (Tyndale, 2001), p. 47.
[ii] Heb 12:22 says there are “countless thousands of angels” and Rev 5:11 states there are “thousands and millions of angels” (NLT).
[iii] When I say “Scripture indicates,” I am referring to the Old Testament speaking about angels more than 100 times and the New Testament approximately 165 times. From Genesis/Job (the oldest) to Revelation, angels are mentioned in 34 books. Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 138.
[iv] “Two angels, Gabriel and the chief, or archangel, Michael, are named in the Bible (Dan 8:16; 9:21; 10:13; Lk 1:19, 26; Jude 1:9; Rv 12:7-9). “Angel” in Tyndale Bible Dictionary, (Tyndale, 2001), p. 46.
[v] The word “archangel” used in 1 Thess 4:16; Jude 9.
[vi] Jude 9; “chief of princes” in Dan 10:12-13.
[vii] Job 38:4-7; Ps 148:2,5; Eze 28:12-15; Col 1:16.
[viii] Deut 33:2; Ps 68:17; Heb 12:22; Jude 14; Rev 5:11.
[ix] Heb 1:14; Gen 18-19; 2 Kings 6:17; Matt 24:41; Luke 2:8-14; 20:36; 24:39.
[x] An exception to this is Zec 5:9 and in Rev 10:1-3.
[xi] J. Scott Horrell, “Angels: Elect and Evil” class notes for ST103, pp. 5-6. Exceptions to this are Isa 6:1-3 and Zec 5:9. However, harps are said to be given to the redeemed in Rev 5:8; 14:2; 15:2 but not used by angels in their current or earthly ministry.
[xii] Ps 8:33; Ps 103:9-22; Isa 6:1-3; Dan 10:12-14; Col 1:16-17; Heb 2:7; Rev 12:7-11.
[xiii] Included in the topic of angels is “the Angel of the Lord” spoken of and frequently mentioned in Scripture. However, it is not clear whether or not this is an angel or an appearance of God since the angel appears to accept sacrifices, receive worship, forgive sins, etc. The angel of the Lord is mentioned in Ex 3:2-6, Matt 28:1-8, Luke 2:9-15, Acts 5:17; 8:26; 12:7, 23. When describing the angel of the Lord the Tyndale Bible Dictionary writes, “It certain texts, it seems impossible to distinguish between the angel of the Lord and the Lord himself. . . Sometimes the angel is depicted acting for the Lord and yet is addressed as the Lord. “Angel” in Tyndale Bible Dictionary, (Tyndale, 2001), p. 46.
[xiv] Heb 1:6. “Angels are creatures, not the Creator.” Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 141.
[xv] 2 Sam 24:16-17; Dan 10:12-14; Matt 28: 1-7; Luke 1:26-27; Acts 7:30-35; 10:1-8; 12:6-10; Heb 13:2; “Satan: Spirit being who opposes God and seeks to frustrate his plans and leads his people into rebellion.” “Satan” in Tyndale Bible Dictionary, (Tyndale, 2001). p. 1168. “The NT does not condone the worship of Angels. “Angel” in Tyndale Bible Dictionary, (Tyndale, 2001), p. 47.
[xvi] Dan 7:9-10; Matt 18:10; 1 Pet 1:2.
[xvii] 2 Sam 24:16; Ps 103:19-22; Dan 10:12-13; Matt 4:6; Heb 1:7,14.
[xviii] Isa 6:1-3; Dan 7:9-10
[xix] Luke 1:26-28; Acts 10:1-8; 12:6-10; 27:23-25; Heb 1:14.
[xx] Ex 23:20; Ps 91:11 (God orders the angels so they can protect humans); Dan 10:12-13; Matt 4:6 (Satan says that God will send the angels to protect Jesus when he falls); 18:10.
[xxi] Gen 19:3; Ex 13; 2 Sam 24:6; 2 Kings 19:35; Matt 13:39; 25:31; Acts 12:21-12; 2 Thess 1:7-9.
[xxii] Dan 9:20-23; 10:12-22; Acts 12:5-10;
[xxiii] Lewis Sperry Chafer makes a good observation about the role of angels when they serve, “The 273 references in the Bible to the angels are largely accounts of their activities, and by these a very wide field of achievement is disclosed. However, that which is most important is not their relation to the inhabitants of earth, but rather their service to God. Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology, vol. 2, (Kregel), p. 21.
[xxiv] “The physical appearance of angels in biblical encounters was often unusual enough to distinguish them from ordinary people.” “Angel” in Tyndale Bible Dictionary, (Tyndale, 2001), p. 47.
[xxv] Ps 103:19-22; 2 Sam 24:16-17; Rev 12:7-11; Rev 20:1-3.
[xxvi] Isa 14:12-14; Ezek 28:12-14; 2 Cor 11:14.
[xxvii] Isa 6:1-3; 14:12-14; Ezek 28:12-14.
[xxviii] Job 1:6-12.
[xxix] Job 1:6-7; 2 Cor 4:3-4; Eph 6:11-18; 1 Tim 4:1-3; Heb 2:14-15; Jas 4:7-8. Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 249.
[xxx] Gen 6:2; 1 Sam 16:14; Acts 19:12-16; 1 Tim 4:1-3; 2 Pet 2:4.
[xxxi] Gen 6:2. “Demon: Fallen angel who, under the leadership of Satan, rebelled against God. . . Often in the Bible the word ‘spirit’ is used for demon, along with a descriptive or identifying phrase; for example, ‘evil spirit’ (Acts 19:12-13), ‘unclean spirit’ (Mt 10:1; Mk 1:23, 26; Acts 5:16), ‘spirit of infirmity’ (Lk 13:11) ‘dumb and deaf spirit’ (Mk 9:25) (all quotes from the RSV). . . The number of demons is unknown; it appears that it is a vast number, perhaps incalculable. From Revelation 12:4 it is inferred that one-third of the angels were led astray by Satan. . . Demons are created beings—personal, immortal, and incapable of reconciliation with God. They have great power compared to humans, but little power as compared with God. God has given us authority over them, so that in the name of Jesus they must obey God’s people, even as they must obey the Lord himself. . . Their [demons] allegiance is to the devil, whom they serve out of fear and delusion. They desire to work with human beings, but their purpose is to carry out the schemes of Satan and to oppose God. They tempt, deceive, and delude people so as to bring them to eternal damnation. In opposing God they attack, oppress, hinder, and accuse the people of God.” “Demon” in Tyndale Bible Dictionary, (Tyndale, 2001), 372.
[xxxii] 1 Sam 16:14.
[xxxiii] Job 1:6-7; Acts 5:12-16; Eph 6:11-18; Heb 2:14-15; Jas 4:7-8; 1 Pet 5:8-9; 1 John 3:8; 4:1-2; 5:12-16. “Satan works his evil will by tempting persons (Jn 13:2; Acts 5:3), by hindering God’s workers (1 Thes 2:18), by accusing Christians before God (Rv 12:10), and by controlling the evil persons who resist the gospel (2 Thes 2:9; Rv 2:9, 13; 13:2).” “Satan” in Tyndale Bible Dictionary, (Tyndale, 2001), p. 1168.
[i] “[S]alvation in its theological sense denotes, negatively, deliverance from sin, death, and divine wrath and positively, the bestowal of far-ranging spiritual blessings both temporal and eternal. God freely conveys these benefits on the basis of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ the Mediator.” Bruce Demarest, The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of Salvation (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1997), 27. Salvation is “God’s way of providing people deliverance from sin and death.” Philip W. Comfort and Walter A. Elwell, eds., Tyndale Bible Dictionary: A comprehensive guide to the people, places, and important words of the Bible (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2001), 1152.
[ii] Millard Erickson, Christian Theology, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2013), 826.
[iii] Comfort and Elwell, Tyndale Bible Dictionary, 1153.
[iv] “The central message of the Bible concerns the spiritual recovery or salvation of lost men and women.” Demarest, Cross and Salvation, 25.
[v] “The Word of God is the means not merely to the beginning of the Christian life, but also to growth in it. Thus, Jesus told his disciples that they were made clean through the Word he had spoken to them (John 15:3). He also prayed that the Father would sanctify them in the truth, which is the Father’s Word (John 17:17). The Lord told Joshua that the book of the law is the means to a life of rectitude: ‘Keep this Book of the Law always on your lips; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful’ (Josh. 1:8). The Word of God guides our feet (Ps. 119:105) and provides us protection as we engage in spiritual warfare (Eph. 6:17).” Erickson, Christian Theology, 937. Furthermore, “The Word of God plays an indispensable part in the whole matter of salvation. In Romans Paul describes the predicament of persons apart from Christ. They have no righteousness; they are totally unworthy of his grace and salvation (Rom 3:9–20). How, then, are they to be saved? This is by calling upon the name of the Lord (Rom 10:13). For them to call, however, they must believe, but they cannot believe if they have not heard; therefore someone must tell them or preach to them the good news.” Ibid., 936-937.
[vi] Because of the fall: 1) Man is separated from God: humanity’s relation with the Creator is broken. 2) Man is separated from himself: guilt, need for love/significance, pain in childbirth, and literal death. 3) Man is separated from man: evidenced in Adam, Eve, and devil accusations, Cain killing Abel. 4) Man is separated from nature: banished from Garden of Eden, nature paid price for man’s nakedness. 5) Nature from Nature: “Cursed is ground because of you” (Gen. 3:17) and “thistles and thorns” (Gen. 3:18). Horrell, The Need for Salvation, 6-7.
[vii] “Genesis 1-3 establishes the religio-philosophic categories that give meaning to the rest of the Christian faith, particularly in the assertions that an infinite, personal God created a perfect world and a sinless human couple, who then rebelled against him brining catastrophic consequences to all earthly creation: To negate the historicity of these chapters is to destroy the greater framework in which salvation through Jesus Christ has significance and all the rest of biblical revelation makes sense.” Ibid., 1.
[viii] Ibid., 11.
[ix] Ibid., 12.
[x] Demarest, Cross and Salvation, 25.
[xi] “Israel’s concept of salvation was rooted in the historical experience of the exodus. This momentous occasion was an opportunity to witness the salvation of the Lord firsthand.” Tyndale Bible Dictionary, 1152.
[xii] “The messianic hope is indicated in passages that speak of an individual who will bring God’s salvation. Isaiah speaks of the Servant who brings salvation to the ends of the earth (49:6), while Jeremiah writes of deliverance by God’s righteous Branch (Jer 23:5-6). The mention of the king who brings salvation in Zechariah 9:9 reflects this messianic theme and is applied to Jesus Christ in Matthew 21:4-5.” Ibid.
[xiii] Horrell’s Overview of Salvation in the Old Testament Through New Testament Eyes: 1) The Basis of Salvation Is Always the Death of Christ . . . salvation can only come through the cross of Jesus Christ. Old Testament believers, indeed all those received by God from all human history, are saved on the basis of Christ’s death even though his crucifixion had not yet taken place. 2) The Requirement Is Always Faith. . . . The Old Testament did not teach a works salvation. There is no possible way that we as fallen creatures can accomplish our own salvation. 3) The Object of Faith Is Always God. 4) The Content of Faith Changes According to Divine Revelation: Our Lord makes himself known to different degrees and at different times, but faith is not in any other than him for salvation. In this is the distinct advantage of dispensationalism.” Horrell, Salvation in the Old Testament, 12-13.
[xiv] “In the Gospels, ‘salvation’ is clearly connected with the Old Testament concept of salvation; it is applied to the coming of Christ in Zechariah’s prophesy (Lk 1:69, 71; cf. Pss. 106:10; 132:17) and in Simeon’s hymn of praise (Lk 2:30).” Tyndale Bible Dictionary, 1153.
[xv] “The NT teaches that salvation has as its source in Jesus Christ (2 Tim 2:10; Heb 5:9), who is the ‘author’ and mediator of salvation (Heb 2:10; 7:25). Salvation is God’s work (1 Thess 5:9) and is offered by his grace (Eph 2:8-9).” Tyndale Bible Dictionary, 1153.
[xvi] Among the many verses that could be quoted to describe soteriology one will be quoted and numerous others mentioned. Nearing the end of his life Jesus addresses his disciples saying, “In this world the kings and great men lord it over their people, yet they are called ‘friends of the people.’ But among you it will be different. Those who are the greatest among you should take the lowest rank, and the leader should be like a servant. Who is more important, the one who sits at the table or the one who serves? The one who sits at the table, of course. But not here! For I am among you as one who serves (Luke 22:25–27, NLT). This verse is speaking primarily about Jesus and his work on the cross. In this work Jesus, “appeals to the position which He at this moment occupies among them,–a position in which every guise of a superiority falls away.” Lange, John Peter, and J. J. van Oosterzee. A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Luke. Translated by Philip Schaff and Charles C. Starbuck. (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2008), 341. In this passage Jesus shows that he calling the lost to him. He is here ready to save them and bring them to God. “Although Jesus is clearly ‘greater’ then the disciples, his behavior during his earthly ministry was one of serving them.” Stein, Robert H. Stein, Luke, vol. 24. The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1992), 549. Jesus’ way of serving was through his sacrifice and his love. He died as the way to serve—saving others from their deprivation and lostness. In other words, the one who announced the coming of God’s kingdom was its King and will reign as king. Stein, Luke, 551. These verses show that Jesus was king and that he had a unique relationship to God because in just a few hours after uttering these words he would submit to suffering, humiliation, and death in order to faithfully serve God and fulfill God’s plan to establish a new covenant with God and God’s people. Allison Trites, The Gospel of Luke, Acts, ed. Philip Comfort, in Cornerstone Biblical Commentary, ed. Philip Comfort, vol. 12, (Carole Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2006), 290.
[xvii] Atonement is the entire work of Christ on the Cross (Lev. 5:10). “Christ as the Lamb of God taking away the sin of the world.” Chafer, Systematic Theology. Vol. 3, 128. “[T]he word atonement (Lev. 5:10) is the term upon which men have seized to express the entire work of Christ upon the cross. . . . The almost universal use of atonement for this purpose may go far to give it authoritative acceptance regardless of its inaptitude for the immense service thus thrust upon it. Though etymologically the word atonement suggests at-one-moment, it feebly relates itself to the New Testament truth which presents Christ as the Lamb of God taking away the sin of the world.” Ibid.
[xviii] “Christ’s righteousness imputed” Horrell, What Christ Did on the Cross, 12. “The gift of righteousness that God gives is not innate to us; it is not based on our personal holiness, nor necessarily always reflected by our practice and works (although it should be). It is in one sense a juridical (forensic) gift of God received by faith that declares Christ’s righteousness to be applied to the believer. Thus we are clothed in Christ himself before the judgment seat of God. . . . while a free gift of grace, justification carries a second sense that the believer is made righteous in union with Christ. Justification is the promise to the believer as she enters covenant community of the eschatological hope of full justification. Justification declares now what will be.” Ibid., 14.
[xix] “Justification envisions one’s legal standing before God.” Tyndale Bible Dictionary, 1153.
[xx] “[D]ivine acknowledgment and declaration that the one who is in Christ is righteous. That which God thus publishes He defends. Justification is immutable.” Chafer, Systematic Theology, vol. 3, 128.
[xxi] “Redemption implies the payment of a ransom price, and, in the redemption which Christ has wrought, the divine judgments against sin having been measured out, these stand paid by Christ’s voluntary sacrifice. This, again, is not something yet to be done; but, being already accomplished, is something to believe.” Ibid., 129.
[xxii] “’The act of paying the ransom/price to purchase something.’ Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law; he himself paid the price to free sinners from the power, consequences, and condemnation of sin.” Horrell, What Christ Did on the Cross, 9.
[xxiii] “[R]edemption speaks more of the means of salvation-the payment of a price to bring one back to God.” Tyndale Bible Dictionary, 1153.
[xxiv] “God manifests his holy wrath against sin. In the OT, the wrath of God against sin is spoken of 858 times. In the NT, divine wrath is an essential theme. . . . [P]ropitation indicates an actual meeting (fulfilling) of the wrath of God; and this satisfaction of righteousness is not only that of God the Father put that of the entire Holy Trinity.” Horrell, What Christ Did on the Cross, 11-12. “Propitiation, which evokes the OT sacrificial system and points to the turning away of God’s wrath.” Tydndale Bible Dictionary, 1153.
[xxv] “[I]t was God’s honor that needed payment or satisfaction. Just as when a serf insults or offends a lord, so God must demonstrate his displeasure with sin and vindicate his honor. Sin is any failure to subject oneself to God, and so shame God, robbing him of his rightful veneration and dignity. God’s nature is such that he requires compensation for damages done. Horrell, Theories of the Atonement, 4,
[xxvi] “The forces of modern thought have been for nearly a century arrayed against the doctrine of satisfaction. The offense of this doctrine is the claim that God, having certain holy, inherent demands against sin, which claims arise from His outraged righteousness and character, has accepted as satisfying the payment which Christ has made. This doctrine must be considered at length in the following chapter of this thesis.” Chafer, Systematic Theology, vol. 3, 129.
[xxvii] Christ died in my place to satisfy God’s justice “as Christ’s death in our place to satisfy the holiness of God and his wrath against sin. . . [T]he penal substitution theory emphasize three aspects. First, Christ death is vicarious. The Son of God become a man as the perfect substitute ‘in our place.’ Second, the model is juridical (or penal) imputation it satisfies the law of God, something that animal sacrifices could never accomplish. Third, Christ’s death pays the ransom not to Satan, or to God’s honor, but to God’s holiness. It satisfies divine wrath against sin. The substitutionary model marks classical Protestantism and Evangelicalism.” Horrell, Theories of the Atonement, 5.
[xxviii] “Christ suffered and died that men might not be required to bear their burden of condemnation Chafer, Systematic Theology, vol. 3, 130.
[xxix] Horrell, Theories of the Atonement, 3.
[xxx] Tyndale Bible Dictionary, 1153.
[xxxi] “Through personal experience, we each have some understanding of being alienated and then reconciled with someone we care for—a lover, brother or friend. . . . Scripture states that God has redeemed, propitiated, and reconciled the world. It seems certain aspects of atonement are said to be offered to every person.” Horrell, What Christ Did on the Cross, 11-12.
[xxxii] “’[W]hen you believed in Christ you were marked with the seal of the promised Holy Spirit, who is the down payment of our inheritance, until the redemption of God’s own possession.’ The seal of the Spirit parallels the ancient custom of sealing a letter with a sax or molten metal; the seals were not to be violated by anyone except the addressees, in many cases of death. Every believers is sealed by the Holy Spirit en route to God; no one can violate its destiny.” Ibid., 21.
[xxxiii] “Past: 2Ti 1:8-9; Ac 16:30-31. Occasional Pauline use that at the moment of faith, once for all, the sinner is juridically pardoned and inhabited by the Holy Spirit. The act of “getting saved” delivers from the judgment and leads to [present and future salvation].” Ibid., 5.
[xxxiv] Eph. 4:17-18 “Present: Jas 1:21; 1Pe 1:9; Lk 9:23-34; Mt 10:37039; Mt 16:25-26; Jn 12:23-26; Php 2:12-13. . . [T]he ongoing experience of the believer’s liberation from the power of the effects of sin, reflecting the victory of Christ and the full salvation to come. The phrase the salvation of the soul denotes a present, ‘existential’ deliverance from the old life to the new in Christ. Similar to LXX use, the term sozo as used by Jesus, Jude, Peter, John, Hebrews, even Paul, usually denotes being freed from sin and the effects of sin.” Ibid.
[xxxv] “Future: Ro 13:11; 2Ti 2:10; 3:15; 1Pe 1:5. We anticipate complete liberation from the effects of sin when glorified with Christ.” Ibid.
[xxxvi] “Salvation is variously thought of as a single occurrence at the beginning of the Christian life, a process continuing throughout the Christian life, or a future event. Some Christians regard salvation as basically complete at the initiation of the Christian life. They tend to say, ‘We have been saved.’ Others see salvation as in process—‘we are being saved.’ Yet others think of salvation as something that will be received in the future—‘we shall be saved.’ Two or all three of these views may be combined, in which case the separate aspects of salvation (e.g., justification, sanctification, glorification) are understood as occurring at different times.” Erickson, Christian Theology, 827.
[i] Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 243.
[ii] I believe that D.A. Carson’s description of sin is accurate and reflects mine: “Sin is rebellion against God’s very being, against his explicit word, against his wise and ordered reign. It results in the disorder of the creation and in the spiritual and physical death of God’s image bearers.” D.A. Carson, “Sin’s Contemporary Significance,” in Fallen: A Theology of Sin, edited by Christopher Morgan and Robert Peterson (Crossway, 2013), p. 23.
[iii] Rom 5:12.
[iv] Romans 5:12-21. Two historical answers have been given to describe Adam and the human race. 1) Representative View: Adam was the representative of the entire human race; 2) Seminal View: Adam contained the seed of all and when he sinned all sinned. Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 258.
[v] I struggle to distinguish between two views on this topic: 1) the “Creationism” view that the soul is created at the moment of conception or birth and is sinful because it has contact with the body; vs. 2) the “Traducianism” view that the soul is transmitted through the body through the process of natural generation. Each view has been described based on Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), pp. 221-222). However, I do want to state that I believe all sin entered the human race through Adam and is transferred from Adam to every new human being.
[vi] Titus 3:3. Roger Olsen, The Mosaic of Christian Belief, (IVP, 2002), p. 208.
[vii] Rom 6:23; 7:18-20; 1 Cor 15:21-22; Eph 2:1.
[viii] My view that the entirety of man (mind, body, soul/spirit) is imputed with sin is contrary to the Jewish view that the soul is “pure” but that the outside world is not pure. Describing this tension a Jew writes, “Daily we pray, My God, the soul which Thouh hast placed within me is pure. What must we do to keep it pure? How shall we maintain our integrity in a world where power, success, and money are valued above all else? How shall we control ‘envy, greed, and pride’? . . The soul which we receive is clean, but within it resides a power for evil.” Abraham Joshua Heschel, God in Search of Man, (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1955), p. 365.
[ix] Rom 3:23; 5:12.
[x] Ps 51:2-5. Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 254.
[xi] 2 Cor 11:3
[xii] Gen 3:1-7.
[xiii] A connection is made between Satan being the “serpent” in Gen 3 based on Rev. 12:9.
[xiv] Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 232.
[xv] Ps 14:2-3 “What makes sin, sin, in the deepest sense is that it is against God. . . What makes sins really vile, intrinsically heinous—what makes them worthy of punishment by God himself—is that they are first, foremost, and most deeply sins against the living God, who has made us for himself and to whom we must one day give an account.” D.A. Carson, “Sin’s Contemporary Significance,” in Fallen: A Theology of Sin, edited by Christopher Morgan and Robert Peterson (Crossway, 2013), p. 24.
[xvi] D.A. Carson writes that sin “results in the disorder of the creation and in the spiritual and physical death of God’s image bearers.” D.A. Carson, “Sin’s Contemporary Significance,” in Fallen: A Theology of Sin, edited by Christopher Morgan and Robert Peterson (Crossway), 2013, p. 23.
[xvii] J. Scott Horrell, “The Fall and Its Five Separations: The Need for Salvations,” ST103 class notes, pp. 1-7.
[xviii] “He [Satan] hates everything you love, and he loves everything you hate. . . We have a very brilliant enemy that wants to bring us down.” Chuck Swindoll, “Simplicity” at DTS Chapel, November 14, 2014.
[xix] 2 Cor 4:3-4; Eph 2:1 Heb 2:14-15.
[xx] James 1:12-15; 1 Jn 3:7-10.
[xxi] Jn 3:36; Rom 6:23; 1 Cor 15:21-22; 2 Cor 5:21; Heb 2:14-15; 1 Jn 3:7-10.
[i] Gen 1:26-27; Ps 139:13-15; Jer 1:5; Zec 12:1; Jn 1:1-3; Col 1:15-17; Heb 1:1-3.
[ii] Gen 1:1-3; Ps 8:3-5; Zec 12:1; Jn 1:1-3; Col 1:15-17; Heb 1:1-3.
[iii] Ps 33:6; 148:1-5.
[iv] Roger Olsen, The Masaic of Christian Belief, (IVP, 2002), p. 157.
[v] Ex 31:16-17.
[vi] Gen 1:26-27; 2:20-23; 5:1-3; 9:6.
[vii] Gen 2:7 says that Adam was formed from the “dust of the ground.” Later, God took a rib from Adam and then “the LORD God made a woman from the rib” (NLT).
[viii] Gen 1:26-27; Ps 8:3-5.
[ix] I note this “physical bodily form” because God possess a “spirit” but does not have body. This is a slight distinction that must be made between God and man.
[x] Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology, vol. 2 (Logos Research Systems, 1997), p. 3.
[xi] Heb 4:12. Man is a “being like God with both intelligence and will that give him the ability to make decisions that enable him to have dominion over the world.” Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 219.
[xii] Heb 4:12; 7:9-10. Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, (Moody Publishers, 1999), p. 225-226. “The soul was derived from God. He breathed into man “the breath of life,” that is, that life which constituted him a man, a living creature bearing the image of God.” Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology, vol. 2 (Logos Research Systems, 1997), p. 3.
[xiii] Roger Olsen makes a valid point that throughout Christian history the debates among those who taught trichotomy vs. dichotomy have had strong opinions about their positions, but rarely did those positions lead to anathemas or condemnations. The Masaic of Christian Belief, (IVP, 2002), p. 204.
[xiv] Gen 2:20-13; 1 Cor 11:3.
[xv] Gen 3:20.